Frequently Asked Questions about Pono Choices
Pono Choices is a culturally responsive sexual health education program designed to provide young adolescents with the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and skills necessary to reduce their risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and pregnancy. This is achieved through a 10-module curriculum that is based upon social learning, self-regulation, and developmental asset theories in combination with researchers’ extensive experiential knowledge working with youth. The curriculum has been developed through an approach that incorporates medically accurate information, character education, and a strong focus on Hawaiian cultural values. Students are introduced to Hawaiian cultural terms and practices that stress positive character development and making pono choices.
The overarching goals for Pono Choices are to reduce the number of teen pregnancies and incidences of STIs, increase positive bonding in the school and community, increase sense of self-identity and self-efficacy, and improve students’ expectations for the future.
Hawai‘i’s teen pregnancy rate is 93 pregnancies per 1,000 young women ages 15-19. This rate is higher than the national rate of 84 pregnancies per 1,000. Only nine states have higher rates of teenage pregnancy. Additionally, STIs and HIV/AIDS are a major concern among youth in Hawai‘i. Therefore, sexual health education curricula like Pono Choices are needed in order to equip youth with the skills they need to make good decisions about sexual behavior and contraception. Because Pono Choices was designed to be “culturally responsive,” it also takes into account the unique experiences that youth in Hawai‘i are facing.
What are the major components of the curriculum?
The Pono Choices curriculum has three major components. The first component focuses on goals, dreams, and adolescent sexuality. The second component focuses on knowledge, including information about the etiology, transmission, and prevention of HIV, STIs, and teenage pregnancy. It also covers beliefs and attitudes about abstinence, HIV, STIs, and pregnancy. The third component focuses on skills and self-efficacy, covering negotiation and refusal skills, and providing time for practice, reinforcement, and support.
Who can participate in the Pono Choices curriculum?
The Pono Choices curriculum was designed for 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students in middle school health classes. It can be used in classes with larger amounts of youth, such as a combination of 7th and 8th grade classes. It can be used in a variety of community settings, including schools or youth-serving agencies.
When might my child receive Pono Choices?
Most likely when they are ages 11-13, as those trained to deliver the curriculum have been trained to deliver it to middle school aged youth. No elementary or high school versions of Pono Choices have been developed.
Is the Pono Choices curriculum medically accurate?
The Pono Choices curriculum uses medically accurate definitions of terms in accordance with Hawai‘i HRS 321-11.1. The program has been reviewed by the Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) for medical accuracy (most recently in May 2014) and aligns with federal HECAT standards.
Pono Choices is on the DOE approved sexual health curricula list for grades 6-8, meets the Hawai‘i State Board of Education Sexual Health Education Policy 103.5, and meets DOE sexual health and responsibility standards and benchmarks. Learn more about sexual health education in the DOE.
Sex, in the Pono Choices curriculum, is defined as:
- Vaginal Sex: when the penis enters the vagina
- Anal Sex: when the penis enters the anus.
- Oral Sex: when one person’s mouth is on another person’s genital area, which includes the penis, scrotum, vagina, vulva, labia, clitoris, and anus
Sex is defined as such because this is how sexually transmitted infections are transmitted.
In order for abstinence to be 100% effective at preventing pregnancy and STIs, the curriculum defines abstinence as:
- no vaginal, anal or oral sex (no sex)
- no sexual contact,
- no needle sharing, and
- no drugs or alcohol.
Note: The entire curriculum has been reviewed for medical accuracy by the federal Office of Adolescent Health, and “sex” is defined as vaginal, anal, or oral because this is how pregnancy and STI transmission can occur. Using this definition, students begin to understand what it means to be abstinent and are clear on how to protect themselves from pregnancy and STIs.
Pono Choices is a teen pregnancy and STI prevention curriculum that is on the Hawai‘i DOE approved list of sexual health curricula. It provides youth with medically accurate information within a Hawaiian place-based framework. Pono Choices works from a pedagogy that believes student engagement through role-play and skill demonstration is essential. A key component unique to the curriculum is the use of cultural referents, Hawaiian practices, and connection and engagement activities involving ‘ohana that are intended to encourage child and family communication about the learning that is taking place. It is an inclusive, medically accurate, locally developed, culturally responsive curriculum that has been reviewed by both the federal Office of Adolescent Health and the Hawai‘i DOE and aligns with Hawai‘i DOE abstinence-based policy and middle school sexual health benchmarks.
The Pono Choices curriculum draws upon place-based theoretical foundations using the Hawaiian culture as the host culture. Many studies have shown that this type of “culturally responsive” teaching approach can better engage students and support their learning because it is relevant to their lives and fosters a trusting relationship with students and families. Additionally, the Native Hawaiian Education Council (2002) recommends that one of the key guidelines for Hawaiian educational success is to strengthen and sustain Native Hawaiian cultural identity and to support the learning, use, and understanding of the Hawaiian language, culture, history, heritage, traditions, and values. Pono Choices introduces Hawaiian cultural terms and practices that stress positive character development and making pono choices. Learn more about Pono Choices Culturally Responsive Curriculum.
Pono Choices is an inclusive curriculum that provides both same-sex and different-sex examples. Activities focus on the behaviors of the individuals in the examples, regardless of their gender. The curriculum teaches that you can get an STI from anyone, regardless of their gender and your gender.
Why is there a condom demonstration?
Learning the pregnancy and STI prevention skill of the correct use of a condom meets the Hawai‘i DOE abstinence-based policy that states programs shall “provide youth with information on and skill development in the use of protective devices and methods for the purpose of preventing sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy.” Many middle school students may not have health education again until 10th grade, and for some students, learning this information at that point is too late to prevent possible negative outcomes of sexual activity.
What is a Pono Choices Parent Night?
Each delivery of the Pono Choices curriculum starts with a Parent Night. Teachers send home letters to parents and guardians informing them that they will be starting the curriculum and inviting parents to learn about the program. Although the federal Office of Adolescent Health and the Hawai‘i DOE consider the curriculum age-appropriate, we encourage parents and ‘ohana members to attend Parent Night to learn about the curriculum so they can make an informed decision.